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        When we mention China’s ancient civilization,we think

        of the Four Great Inventions--paper,gunpowder,the compass

        and printing.which have had an immeasurable impact to 1.

        the development of world culture,military affairs,and

        communications and transportation.The science and technology

        of ancient China no doubt occupy a very important and 2.

        prominent position in the scientific and technological history

        of the world.yet modern science and technology did not

        originate in China.

        Why is that modem science and technology did not 3.

        originate in China? Chinese scholars specialize in the history 4.

        of natural sciences offer an answer.In brief,there are four reasons。

        First,industry and commerce were restricted in feudal China,

        which closed their borders to the outside world and inhibited the 5.

        development of areas of science and technology such as

        mechanics,mathematics,navigational technology and machine

        building.which were related with industry and commerce 6.

        Second.in terms of philosophy,Confucianism(儒学)was the

        respected school of thought,and it was unable to provide 7.

        philosophical guidance for the further development of science and

        technology after the end of the Ming Dynasty.Third,school

        curricula was limited to the Confucian classics,which downplayed 8.

        (不予重视)technology and crafts and touched on the sciences 9.

        Fourth,Confucian scholars were contented and conservative,

        believed their imperial court to be the supreme court granted by Heaven 10.

        and themselves the only civilized and respectable people in the world.

        【答案请见下页】

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